Monte Cassino sometimes written Montecassino is monte casino accommodation rocky hill about kilometres 81 mi southeast of RomeItaly, 2 kilometres 1. Site of the Roman town of Casinummonte casino accommodation is best known for its historic abbey. Benedict of Monte casino accommodation established his monte casino accommodation monasterythe source of the Benedictine Order, here around The hilltop sanctuary was the site of the Battle of Monte Cassino inwhere the building was destroyed by Allied bombing and rebuilt after the war.
The site has been visited many times by Popes and other senior clergy, including Pope Benedict XVI in May Since the reforms of the Second Vatican Council the monastery is one of the few remaining territorial abbeys within the Catholic Church.
On 23 OctoberPope Francis applied the norms of the motu proprio Ecclesia Catholica Paul VI,  to the Abbey. This act removed from its jurisdiction all 53 parishes and monte casino accommodation its territory to the Abbey itself - while retaining its status monte casino accommodation a Territorial Abbey.
The former territory of the Abbey, except the land on which the Abbey Church and monastery sit, was transferred to the local diocese of Monte casino accommodation. The history of Monte Cassino is linked to the nearby town of Cassino which was first settled in the fifth century B. It was the Volsci who first built a citadel on the summit of Monte Cassino.
The Volsci in the area were defeated by the Romans in B. The Romans renamed the settlement Casinum and built a temple to Apollo at the citadel. Modern excavations have found no remains of the temple, but ruins of an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a mausoleum indicate the lasting presence the Schiff casino had there.
Generations after the Roman Empire more info Christianity the town became the seat of a please click for source in the fifth century A. Lacking strong defences the area was subject to barbarian attack and became abandoned and neglected with only a few struggling inhabitants holding out.
According to Gregory the Great's biography of BenedictLife of Saint Benedict of Nursiathe monastery was constructed on an older pagan site, a temple of Apollo that crowned the hill. The biography records that the area was still largely pagan at the time and Benedict's first act was to smash the sculpture of Apollo and monte casino accommodation the altar.
He then reused the temple, dedicating it to Saint Martinand built another chapel more info the site of the altar dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. The mountain shelters this citadel on a broad bench. Then it rises three miles above it as if its peak tended toward heaven.
There was an click at this page temple there in which Apollo used to be worshipped according to the old pagan rite by the foolish local farmers. Around it had grown up a grove dedicated to demon worship, where even at that time a wild crowd still devoted themselves to unholy sacrifices.
When [Benedict] the man of God arrived, he smashed the idol, overturned the altar and cut down http://freekeylogger.biz/codeslot.php grove of trees. He built a chapel dedicated to St. Martin in the temple of Apollo and another to St. John where the altar of Apollo had stood.
And he summoned the people of the district to the faith by his unceasing preaching. Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict claims that Satan opposed the monks repurposing the site. In one story Satan http://freekeylogger.biz/ligue-1-betting.php sits on a rock making it too heavy to remove until Benedict drives monte casino accommodation off.
In another story, Satan taunts Benedict and then collapses a wall on a young monk, who is brought back to life by Benedict. Pope Gregory also relays that the monks found a pagan idol of bronze when juegos online casino at the site which when thrown into the kitchen gave the illusion of a monte casino accommodation - until dispelled by Benedict. Martin of Tours in western Gaul by pagans angry at his attacks on their shrines, "By the time of Benedict, cdacasino com was in a weaker condition monte casino accommodation western Europe than it had been in Martin's time.
And, of course, it must be remembered that Martin as a bishop was a much more prominent churchman than Benedict. This was an isolated and unusual episode in Benedict's monastic career. Martin, however, was thrust out of his monastery into the role of a missionary bishop in the fourth century. Benedict scholars such as Adalbert de Vogüé and Terrence Kardong note the heavy influence of Sulpicius Severus ' Life of Martin on Pope Gregory I's biography of Benedict, including the account of his seizure of Read article Cassino.
Benedict's violence against a pagan holy place recalls both Martin's assault against pagan shrines generations before and the Biblical story of conquering Israel entering the Holy Monte casino accommodation see Exodus De Vogue writes "this mountain had to be conquered from an idolatrous people and purified from its devilish horrors.
And like conquering Israel, Benedict came precisely to carry out this purification. No doubt Gregory had this biblical model uppermost in his mind, as is clear from the terms he uses to describe the work of destruction.
At the same time, neither Gregory nor Benedict could have forgotten the similar line of action taken by St. Martin against the pagan shrines of Gaul. In his earlier setting Benedict "had twice shown complete mastery over his aggressiveness, Benedict is now allowed to use it without restraint in the service of God.
Where Satan concealed himself behind underlings at Subiaco, at Monte Cassino he drops the masks to enter into a desperate attempt to prevent an abbey from being built, and "that monte casino accommodation sole cause of this eruption of satanic action is the suppression of pagan worship on the high places. Martin is dominant - with the resistance of Satan substituting for Martin's outraged pagan populace.
Unlike the stories that may have influenced Pope Gregory's structure of the biography, Benedict's victories are practical, preventing Satan from stopping work on the abbey at Monte Cassino. Benedict's prayers monte casino accommodation portrayed as both the driving force behind the building of the Abby and the triumphs over Satan, through prayer "Benedict the monk wrests from the devil a well-determined base which he never leaves.
Once established at Monte Cassino, Benedict never left. He wrote the Benedictine Rule that became the founding principle for Western monasticismreceived a visit from Totilaking of the Ostrogoths perhaps inthe only remotely secure historical date for Benedict monte casino accommodation, and died there.
According to accounts, "Benedict died in the oratory of St. Martin, and was buried in the oratory of St. The Rule of St. Benedict mandated the moral obligations to care for the sick. So in Monte Cassino St. Benedict founded a hospital that is considered today to have been the first hospital in Europe of the new era. The monastic routine called for hard work.
The monte casino accommodation of the sick was such an important duty that those caring for them were enjoined to act as if they served Christ directly. Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at nearby Subiaco about 64 km to the east of Romewhere hospitals were settled too as adjuncts to the monasteries in order to provide charity.
Soon many monasteries were founded throughout Europe, and everywhere there were hospitals like in Monte Cassino. Pope Gregory I's account of Benedict's construction was confirmed by archaeological discoveries made after the destruction of Adalbert monte casino accommodation Vogüé recounts that "Traces have been found of the oratories of St.
Martin and of St. John the Baptist, with additions from the eighth and eleventh centuries, together with their pre-Christian cellars. The first one which Benedict built in the temple itself was only twelve meters real slots money to win and eight wide. From this, we can infer a visit web page small monte casino accommodation. The second oratory, on the mountain-top, where the pagan altar had stood in the open air, was of the same width but somewhat longer Monte Cassino became a model for future developments.
Unfortunately, its prominent site has always made it an object of strategic importance. It was sacked or destroyed a number monte casino accommodation times. During this time the click of St Benedict was transferred to Fleury, the modern Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire near Orleans, France.
A flourishing period of Monte Cassino followed its re-establishment in by Abbot Petronaxwhen among the monks were Carlomanson of Monte casino accommodation Martel ; Ratchispredecessor of the great Lombard Duke and King Aistulf ; and Please click for source the Deaconthe historian online race betting the Lombards.
Inmonte casino accommodation donation of Gisulf II of Benevento created the Terra Sancti Benedictithe secular lands of the abbacy, which were subject to the abbot and nobody else save the Pope. Thus, the monastery became the monte casino accommodation of a state comprising a compact and strategic region between the Lombard principality of Benevento and the Byzantine city-states of the coast NaplesMonte casino accommodationand Amalfi.
In Saracens sacked and then burned it down,  and Abbot Bertharius was killed during the attack. Among the great historians who worked at the monastery, in this period there is Erchempertwhose Historia Langobardorum Beneventanorum is a fundamental chronicle of the ninth-century Mezzogiorno.
Monte Cassino was rebuilt and reached the apex dollar slot wins its fame in the 11th century under the abbot Desiderius abbot —who later became Pope Victor III.
Monks caring for the patients in Monte Cassino constantly needed monte casino accommodation medical knowledge. So they began to buy and collect medical and other books by Greek, Roman, Islamic, Egyptian, European, Jewish, and Oriental authors. As Naples is situated on the crossroad of many seaways of Europe, Middle East monte casino accommodation Asia, soon the monastery library was one of the richest in Monte casino accommodation. All the knowledge of the civilizations of all the times and nations was accumulated in the Abbey of that time.
The Benedictines translated into Latin and transcribed precious manuscripts. The number of monks rose to over two hundred, and the library, the manuscripts produced in the scriptorium and the school of manuscript illuminators monte casino accommodation famous throughout the West. The unique Beneventan script flourished there during Desiderius' abbacy. Monks reading and copying the medical texts learnt a lot about human anatomy and methods of planet kings casino, and then put their theoretic skills into practice at monastery hospital.
By the th centuries Monte Cassino became the most famous cultural, educational, and medical center of Europe with great library in Medicine and other sciences. Many physicians came there monte casino accommodation medical and other knowledge. That is why the first High Medical School in the world was soon opened in nearby Salerno which is considered today the first Institution of Higher Education in the world.
This school found its original base in the Benedictine Abbey of Monte Cassino still in the 9th century and later settled down in Salerno. So, Montecassino and Benedictines played a great role in the progress of medicine monte casino accommodation science in monte casino accommodation Middle Ages, and with his life and work St. Benedict himself exercised a fundamental influence on the here of European civilization and culture and helped Europe to emerge from the "dark night of history" that followed the fall of the Roman empire.
The buildings of the monastery were reconstructed in the 11th century on a scale of great magnificence, artists being brought from Amalfi, Lombardy, laberge casino www even Constantinople to supervise the various works.
The abbey monte casino accommodation, rebuilt and decorated with the utmost splendor, was consecrated monte casino accommodation by Pope Alexander II. A detailed account of the abbey at this date exists in the Monte casino accommodation monasterii Cassinensis by Leo of Ostia and Amatus of Monte Cassino gives us our best source on the early Normans in the south. Abbot Desiderius sent envoys to Constantinople some time after to monte casino accommodation expert Byzantine mosaicists for the decoration of the rebuilt abbey church.
According to chronicler Leo of Ostia the Greek artists decorated the apse, monte casino accommodation arch and the vestibule of the basilica. Their work was admired by contemporaries but was totally destroyed in later centuries except two fragments depicting greyhounds now in the Monte Cassino Museum.
An earthquake damaged the Abbey inand although the monte casino accommodation was rebuilt it marked the beginning of a long period of decline. InPope John XXII made the church of Monte Cassino a cathedral, and the carefully preserved independence of the monastery from episcopal interference was at an end.
That unfortunate situation was reversed by Pope Urban Va Benedictine, in The site was sacked by Napoleon 's troops in From the dissolution of the Italian monasteries inMonte Cassino became a national monument. During the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian Campaign of World War II January—May the Abbey made up one section of the kilometre mile Gustav Linea German defensive line designed to hold the Allied troops from advancing any farther into Italy.
The abbey itself, however, was not captured by the German troops as part of their fortifications as Albert Kesselringthe German commander, wished to prevent the historical place from becoming a victim of war. The Gustav Line stretched from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast in the east, with Monte Cassino itself overlooking Highway 6 and blocking the path to Rome.
On 15 February the abbey was almost completely destroyed in a series of heavy American-led air raids. Monte casino accommodation Commander-in-Chief Allied Armies in Italy, Monte casino accommodation Sir Harold Alexander of the British army ordered the bombing.
The bombing was conducted because many reports from the British commanders of the Indian troops on the ground suggested that Germans were occupying the monastery, and it was considered a key catalogue casino hiver 2016 post by all those who were fighting in the field.
Subsequent investigations continue reading since confirmed that the only people killed in the monastery by the bombing were Italian civilians seeking refuge there.
The Abbey was rebuilt after the war; Pope Paul VI reconsecrated it monte casino accommodation During reconstruction, its library was housed at the Pontifical Abbey of St Jerome-in-the-City. In Decembersome 1, irreplaceable manuscript codiceschiefly patristic and historical, in addition to a vast number of documents relating to the history of the abbey and the collections of the Keats-Shelley Memorial House in Rome, had been sent to the abbey archives for safekeeping.
Fortunately, German officers Lt. Julius Schlegel a Roman Catholic and Capt. Maximilian Becker a Protestantboth from the Panzer-Division Hermann Göringhad them transferred to the Vatican at the beginning of the battle. Another account, however, from Kurowski "The History of the Monte casino accommodation Hermann Göring: Soldiers of the Reichsmarschall"notes that trucks were loaded with monastic assets and art which had been stored there for safekeeping.
Robert Edsel "Rescuing DaVinci" is more to the point about German looting. The trucks were loaded and left in Octoberand only "strenuous" protests resulted in their delivery to the Vatican, minus the 15 cases which contained the property of the Capodimonte Museum in Naples. Edsel goes on to note that these cases had been delivered to Göring in Decemberfor "his birthday.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For information about the World War II battle, see Battle of Monte Cassino. Salkin; Sharon La Boda, eds. International Dictionary of Historic Places: Volume 3 Southern Europe. The Life of Saint Benedict. Translated by Terrence Kardong, OSB. Translated by Hilary Costello and Eoin monte casino accommodation Bhaldraithe. The Age of Faith. The Age of Faith: A History of Medieval Civilization - Christian, Islamic, and Judaic - from Constantine to Dante: Bullarum, diplomatum et privilegiorum sanctorum romanorum pontificum Taurinensis editio in Latin Tomus IV ed.
Franco et Henrico Dalmazzo editoribus. Monte Cassino in the Middle Ages. Retrieved 22 May Frosinone Latina Rieti Rome Viterbo. Latins Latium Ancient Rome Papal States Roman Republic 18th century Roman Republic 19th century. Lake Albano Lake Bolsena Lake Bracciano Lago di Canterno Lago di Caprolace Lago di Fondi Lago di Giulianello Lake Martignano Lake Mezzano Lago dei Monaci Lake Nemi Lago di Posta Fibreno Lago di Rascino Lago di Sabaudia Lago del Salto Lago del Visit web page Lake Vico.
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